Diabetes – a disease of the endocrine system, which is characterized by inadequate hormone in the body of the pancreas – insulin and developing against the background of impaired carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Violation of carbohydrate metabolism results in a significant increase in blood sugar. The main danger of diabetes is that a change in metabolism pulls a breach in the hormonal system, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc. As the disease progresses the potential for serious complications in various organs and systems of the human body.
Distinguish true and symptomatic diabetes. Symptomatic diabetes is a disease associated with existing lesions of the endocrine glands. During treatment of the underlying disease virtually eliminated the manifestations and symptomatic diabetes. True diabetes is divided into insulin-dependent or type I and insulin independent or type II.
If the patient have insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and he does not receive the required amount of insulin, it causes hyperglycemia, but also leads to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis. Most insulin dependent diabetes develops in people under 25 years old, so he still bears the name “juvenile”.
When patient have insulin independent diabetes produced enough insulin, but the problem is the intensity of its absorption by tissues. Quite often, type II diabetes combined with obesity, adipose tissue and that blocks the action of insulin.
Changes in carbohydrate metabolism lead to an increase in blood sugar and its active excretion in the urine, which leads to dehydration of tissues. Diabetics are constantly thirsty and consume plenty of fluids. With the increase in fluid intake and increasing the amount of urine, which is derived sugars. The patient begins to suffer from general weakness, decreasing its efficiency and resistance to infections.
In order to prevent serious complications seeks reduction in blood sugar levels. At insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients assigned to daily injections of insulin and at insulin independent – the sugar-lowering drugs. Also prescribes strict diet, which helps to reduce blood sugar, normalize health and prevent the development of various complications in the future.
In strict compliance with all requirements of the doctor can control the disease and to maintain a normal working capacity and high-grade standard of living. In addition to compliance with the diet recommended regular exercise, which also help reduce blood sugar levels, due to active oxidation of glucose in the muscle tissue.